Pilot Monitoring

ICAO, State Authorities and the Aviation Industry in general have replaced the term PNF (Pilot Not Flying) with the term PM (Pilot Monitoring)

The PM is NOT just the Pilot Monitoring- or, Co-Pilot with a new word/acronym description – or, PNF with a new terminology classification. The PM has a very active role in Multi-crew Operations. The Responsibilities and Duties of the PM are significant and vital to the safe and efficient operation of the aircraft.
Quote : ‘After 10 years of examining how flight crews manage errors it is clear that there is one thing all successful crews do. They all co-operate to rigorously monitor and cross check to make sure they pick up threats and errors early. These crews are actively engaged in checking and verifying every setting and action that can affect safety’ (Bob Helmreich, FSA Set/Oct 2006)

Outline of PM Duties

Pre-flight Duties

  • Aircraft walk around (Pre-flight inspection).
  • Obtain ATIS, PDF. Set/ Test Comms and Nav Frequencies.
  • Check Oxygen systems, Mask, RT transmission.
  • Prepare T/O data and performance speeds & check against FMS include accuracy and gross error check.
  • Check FMS initialization, Flight Plan, SID/Transition entries(accuracy and gross error check).
  • Liaise with Cabin Crew/Dispatch and check Load Sheet data.
  • Obtain Airways/Route/SID/Transition clearances and transponder Code.
  • Call Before Start Checklist.

Start and Taxi Duties

  • Call checklist / obtain start and/or Pushback approval.
  • Monitor start parameters.
  • Obtain taxi instructions and monitor taxi route, turns, hold points and any threats.
  • Call Before Take -Off Check list.

Take-off Duties

  • Obtain T/O clearance/Line up Checklist/select lights as required.
  • Monitor Thrust, modes, acceleration, V-speeds and Rotation.
  • Monitor EICAS Warnings, Cautions, Comparators.
  • Select MCP, Call and Monitor FMA/Target Altitude and Speed selections
  • Monitor PF for subtle or overt incapacitation.
  • Retract Gear / Flaps & monitor target and acceleration speeds/altitudes and any restrictions.
  • Monitor icing conditions/pressurization and cabin temperature zones.
  • Make Departure report/call and select Headings for Radar departure as required.
  • Monitor navigation of the FMS and / or Navaid navigation.
  • Monitor and operate Weather radar and liaise with ATC for weather avoidance.
  • Advise PF of any potential threats, including solutions.
  • Complete the After T/O Checklist.

Climb and Cruise Duties

  • ATC Frequency changes & obtain further climb and route clearances.
  • Monitor Navigation, EICAS, Environmental and Icing Systems.
  • Monitor Selection or auto update of Navaids and confirm Vertical and Lateral Navigation of FMS.
  • Monitor Transition Level and Standard altimeter settings(Metric levels when required).
  • Monitor Fuel (Flow/Usage, log flight plan).
  • Advise potential threats and monitor MORA /LSALT.
  • Monitor and confirm RVSM requirements and TCAS Advisories/Resolutions.
  • Check ACARS for Alternate weather and company communications.
  • Monitor and operate ACARS/CPDLC as required.
  • Prior to descent point obtain ATIS, Confirm Fuel Status, Landing Weight & confirm Landing Configuration and Speeds with FMS. Check Aerodrome Chart for Landing and familiarization of Taxiway exits. Advise of any potential threats.
  • Liaise with Company-Parking Bay / Fuel and Serviceability Status/ PAX etc.
  • Obtain Descent/STAR/Transition/Intersection Clearance & confirm FMS inputs. If applicable brief or confirm Approach Briefing and any speed/altitude restrictions.

Descent Duties

  • Monitor Descent point.
  • Complete Descent Checklist.
  • Monitor descent profile/altitude limits & MSA/LSALT/MORA.
  • Monitor TCAS Advisories/Resolutions.
  • Monitor Transition Altitude and Altimeter settings/Cross Check three Altimeters.
  • Advise PF of any perceived or valid Threats including solutions.
  • Monitor speed restrictions within State Speed restrictions and performance or company requirements.

Approach & Landing Duties

  • Obtain Approach clearance.
  • Select and preselect appropriate COM’s NAV Frequencies & Nav Display.
  • Select Altitude & Speed targets and/or limits.
  • Monitor Course 1 & 2, Monitor Approach & select appropriate Modes. Confirm and call FMA modes.
  • Select Flaps and Gear, monitor speed limits.
  • Advise PF of any potential Threats, including solutions.
  • Monitor PF for subtle or overt incapacitation.
  • Monitor DME/Altitude/MEA limits during approach.
  • Maintain standard company calls as appropriate.
  • Monitor DA/DH or MDA.
  • Monitor and advise Speed / Altitude targets and trends.
  • Call checklists / obtain and confirm landing clearance / select Lights as required.
  • Monitor Auto Spoiler and Thrust reverser deployment and limits. Monitor auto brakes and deceleration – call speeds as appropriate.

After Landing Duties

  • Advise ATC Parking requirements / obtain and Monitor Taxi Route.
  • After Landing checks / procedures & complete Checklist.
  • Monitor Taxi route, turns and hold points. Anticipate changes.
  • Advise PF any perceived Threats.

Shutdown Duties

  • Monitor & Complete shutdown procedures.
  • Complete Checklist.
  • Liaise with Ground Engineer/Staff/Company.

PM Duties also include:

  • Assist in pre- flight briefings and flight planning.
  • Handling of Normal Checklist and Non-Normal Procedures Checklist (QRH).
  • Assistance with Recall Items during Emergency Operations.
  • Taking affirmative action and control of the aircraft if required, Instrument failure or PF incapacitation.
  • Unanticipated Role Reversal during ground & flight operations.